Proposals and standards for organizing competitions for ....

Proposals and standards for organizing competitions for ....

Odeslatod mlynář v 08 Lis 2008, 13:29

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Czech Cichlid Association secretary
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Proposals and standards for organizing competitions for fish of the genus Pterophyllum.

1. General conditions applicable to attending parties

Rights and responsibilities of the organizer of the competition

The organizer of the competition: The organizer is responsible for everything related to the completion to the full extent. The organizer announces the exact date and location of the competition in an adequate time in advance (recommended time is 5 to 6 months). He/she is required to provide adequate tank space for the competition. Recommended dimensions of the aquarium are: at least 30 x 40 x 40 cm (48 liters) and at most 40 x 60 x 55 cm (131 liters). The choice of the tank size in the range of the above mentioned dimensions depends on the organizer; however, all tanks used for the competition must have the same size.
Each tank should be properly lit but it should not be excessively illuminated. The lighting must not misrepresent colors and patterns of the competing fish and must not stress the fish due to its intensity. Background, bottom and at least one side of the tank has to be monochrome and made of matte and dark material – optimal color choices are dark shades of green, blue, brown but also black or dark grey.
The tanks used for competition have to be covered (to prevent the possibility of fish jumping out) and must have a filter and a thermometer. If the temperature in the room doesn’t meet the requirements the tank has to be equipped with at least a semiautomatic heater of corresponding wattage. All electric appliances have to be fully in accordance with regulations of the country where the competition is organized.
Water in the tanks used for the competition should comply with appropriate parameters optimal for the show fish. It should have more or less parameters of tap water and be in the scope of standards for potable water. It is also required to provide temperature in the range of 26 through 29 °C , pH between 6-7 and conductivity of 200 to 500 S. The organizer should fill the tanks with water at least 24 hours prior to the entry of the first show fish and he/she should use suitable bacterial culture containing nitrification bacteria in order to prevent cloudiness due to presence of high quantity of infusorians.
Apart from the above mentioned technical equipment, it is recommended but not required to equip the tank with at least one plant, planted in a portable gravel bed placed at the bottom of the tank. The plant should be long enough, so the tips of its leaves would reach at least to 2-3 cm below the water surface (suitable are certain species of wide leaved plants from the genus Echinodorus, Cryptocoryne and so on). In case of long leaved plants of the genus Valisneria, the length of the leaves should be such that the tips or parts of the tips would cover the surface. Because the competition is restricted in terms of time and space, it is usually completed within one day, it is not expected that the plant would have any biological or other effect. In this case, the plant would be there just to improve esthetical appearance and calm down the competing fish. For those reasons, it is permissible to use plastic plants of corresponding size and shape. Some experienced organizers of competitions absolutely require the use of plastic plants as a result of their previous practical experience.
Every tank used for the competition has to be legibly labeled with a rank number and after releasing the competing fish in the tank also with a code of a particular category to which the fish belongs. After the results are determined, each tank has to be labeled with an understandable and well visible legend, which would contain the tank number, the correct name of the fish and its category, the name and the country of origin or the name of the organization of the exhibitor, the number of points in the particular category, the overall number of points and the rank of the fish (see example).

The Organizer is responsible for releasing fish into the tanks used for competition of fish that he/she was requested to make the last stage of transport (if it is not otherwise arranged with the exhibitor). The organizer will state in the proposals of the competition the place and time of the personal delivery of fish by exhibitors or the final station and time of particular train connection or of other public transportation. The organizer will provide an appropriate transportation of exhibited fish from final stations of designated carriers. The organizer will appoint a skilled individual, who will be allowed to: take care of the exhibited fish, check their health status, collect possible dead fish, preserve them by freezing and properly store and document this in a protocol, unless it is arranged with the owner of the fish otherwise or if it is not otherwise stated in the proposal of the competition. The organizer can perform this role by himself/ herself. It is necessary to follow the highest hygienic measures when performing maintenance of the tank, the tools used for maintenance have to be disinfected after each use.
The competing fish should be moved to the tanks used for competition at least 24 hours prior to the judging, if it is possible to extend this period by 24 hours, it would be the most optimal time for adjustment of the fish to the new environment, calming down after the transport and recovery of the natural colors of the fish. The organizer has to ensure that the environment of the tank is not altered by any means after releasing the exhibited fish in the tank. Fish will not be fed during the course of the competition and will be passed to the organizer after the end of the competition, unless otherwise arranged with the exhibitor. Here, it fully depends on the mutual agreement between the exhibitor and the organizer. The organizer has the right, in case of surplus of prepared tanks in contrast to the number of exhibits, to leave the tanks empty or fill them with non-competing fish. These tanks have to be visibly labeled so it would be clear that they do not contain competing fish.
The organizer is also responsible that the members of the jury are not disturbed while judging and is obliged to provide a sufficient number of judging forms for all members of the jury and all required equipment necessary for judging. The organizer is required to ensure that the competing fish would have appropriate rest during the judgment and would not be stressed by visitors (this also holds true for taking photos with a flash). The organizer has to ensure absolute anonymity of the relationship of the exhibitors to the exhibits until the end of the competition.
The organizer also provides a person (possible a team, with one individual assigned to be a leader of the processing team, who will be responsible for this process), who will be responsible for the administrative part of the competition, i.e. processing the results of the competition and creating a list of competition results and diplomas. The processor of the results must not to be influenced or disturbed during his/her activity. The processor of the results collects all judging forms and while judging a particular fish crosses the best and the worst score, in order to ensure the highest objectivity of the results. In each exhibit, the highest and the lowest score will be crossed during counting. Only the final average score from all judges will be stated for each exhibit on the list of competition results designated for the public.
The trophy competition will be awarded to winners of each eight competition categories and to the overall winner of the competition – Best in Show (based on the highest score). All the exhibits will be awarded diplomas, on which except of basic and date information regarding the competition will be also stated the name of the exhibitor, and the name and the category of the competing fish and its rank in the particular category. In the case that some category is not occupied by at least 3 competitors or assortments, the first place in this category will not be awarded. If there is by chance in any of the first 3 places an identical score, the final rank of the exhibits with the same score will be decided by considering the previously crossed “marginal” scores.
The organizer of the competition has the right to, except of the previously stated basic awards, announce within his/her limits additional special competition awards, such as – People Choice and Sponsor Choice Awards, etc. However, these awards do not have any value even in the case of primary competition and are not carried over to the basic evaluation of the competition.

Terms and conditions for competitors – exhibitors (breeders)

The exhibitor ensures transport of the exhibit to the designated place, i.e. either in person or he/she will ship the properly wrapped exhibits via public transportation and in such a way that they will arrive to the destination at the time stated by the organizer. Assortments delivered after the stated time do not have to be received and included into the evaluation. In case of personal delivery, the exhibitor is responsible for releasing the exhibits into the tanks designated for the competition.
The competing exhibits can be of two kinds: either single individuals or pairs. The fish should not be shorter than 5 cm (length of the body from the mouth to the caudal peduncle) and yet the exhibitor has to expect penalty in the section “size and proportion of body”. It is the duty of each exhibitor to judge what the chances of their exhibits in the competition are. It doesn’t make sense to enter in the competition fish with any kind of deformity of the body, gill covers, cloudy eyes or visible torn fins.
Fish with apparent signs (color of excrements) of artificial coloration caused by feeding food containing astaxantin or fish with trimmed fins can be after agreement of the judging team excluded from the competition. A similar situation can also occur if the enrolled fish is too small (see previous paragraph) or sick. The risk related with transportation until the moment of inspection after receiving the fish by the organizer or by him/her deputed person carries the exhibitor.


Terms and conditions for the judges

The team of judges: The team of judges (jury) is appointed by the organizer of the competition. The jury has to have at least five and at most nine members; one of them is assigned chair judge and can also be the president of the competition. The organizer appoints the president of the competition unless it is himself/herself. In the case of an international attendance, it is appropriate that at least 1/3 of the jury have citizenship from countries, whose breeders are taking part in the competition. Active attendance of the citizen of a foreign country in the jury is permitted even in the scope of local competition run only at a national level.
The organizer should select from possible experts in the field a president of the jury. The jury is chosen by the organizer and the president of the competition or possible only by the president and this is done ahead of time, at least one month before the competition, so that all nominated members would have enough time to become familiar with the proposal and standards for judging fish. The nominated judges should be first of all experts who have theoretical and if possible also practical experience with representatives of the genus Pterophyllum.
It is necessary to carry out ahead of time a meeting, where all criteria and procedures arising from their duty are arranged. In the scope of the meeting, new judges can be trained. All members of the jury should afterwards jointly study individual exhibits, check whether condition and appearance of the exhibits agrees with norms of the competition and thoroughly check correctness of labels that assign exhibits into categories. The judges should also pledge that their judgment will not be influenced by any possible impulses from outside, or from individuals outside of the jury and that their evaluation will not be provided for anybody to see.
Further, the jury should strictly follow given rules for judging individual exhibits, which are given by the proposals and competition standards. Because it is expected, that a new attractive form can appear in the competition, it is necessary that the judge can free himself/ herself from any emotions and can judge the novelty without a bias and give it a score that will be in accordance with score given to the other exhibits. The judges should take into account possible minor damages caused unambiguously during transport (little abrasions or scratches, slightly mechanically damaged fins).
Immediately after the judging is completed, the judges hand in the judging form to the processor or the competition results. In accordance with a possible agreement, the judge can also hand in the judging forms continuously. The decision of the jury regarding the score of exhibits and assortments or their possible disqualification is final and cannot be abjured. The paper work of judges is secret and has to be destroyed 6 months from the release of the list of competition results.
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2. Categories

I. Wild Forms

Into the category of wild forms belong not only fish caught in the wild but also fish of pure natural lines originating from breeding in captivity.
Justification: Every breeder, who wants to show his exhibits has to make sure that his fish will look at its best. Frayed or deformed or shortened fins due to handing of the fish when the fish is collected in the nature is not an argument because any serious breeder will not send fish to a competition in such a short time so that the fins would not have enough time to heal and regenerate. Therefore, there is no reason to divide wild caught fish and fish bred in captivity into two different categories. In controversial cases of P. scalare – f. Four-striped that went through many years of domestication and in which is clearly apparent that the previous generations were bred in captivity, it is fully up to the jury to decide whether such fish belongs to the category of Wild Forms or Breeder Forms. In the nomenclature of individuals of the category I., it is on purpose omitted the term “species”, because due to the newest research in the field of validations of species and possible future interpretations after future review of the genus, the term “type” is selected instead!

I/A type altum
I/B type leopoldi
I/C type scalare
I/D type other wild species
– “undescribed – to date systematically unassigned species”
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Pterophyllum altum
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Pterophyllum leopoldi
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Pterophyllum scalare
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Pterophyllum sp. "Nanay"
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II. Breeder forms P. scalare
Short finned with either narrow or wide fins without further shape mutations

II/E fish without a pattern with broadly organized colors, the fish are either mono-colored or with differently broadly colored patches of the body. In this category belong groups: 2. – Mono-colored, 3. Ghosts and 9. Gold, In “Gold – lutino”, despite it doesn’t belong to the representatives of the category with a pattern, the pattern and the ratio and the markedness of red components is evaluated.

II/E fish with a pattern – as pattern is meant fish with dark bounded elements which are vertical bars, marbling, maps, spots and dots. this category belong groups: 1. Four-striped, 2. Mono-colored, 4. Bi-colored, 5. Blotted, 6. Marbled, 7. Spotted, and 9. Multi-stripped.


III. Breeder forms P. scalare
Long finned with pearlscale like skin.

III/f fish without a pattern with broadly organized colors, the fish are either mono-colored or with differently broadly colored patches of the body. Into this category belong fish with veil (long) fins and pearlscale skin or short fins and pearlscale skin. The representatives of this category are from groups: 2. Mono-colored, 3. Ghosts and 9. Gold, In “Gold – lutino”, despite it doesn’t belong to the representatives of the category with a pattern, the pattern and the ratio and the markedness of red components is evaluated.

III/H fish with a pattern – as pattern is meant fish with dark bounded elements which are vertical bars, marbling, maps, spots and dots. Into this category belong fish with veil (long) fins and pearlscale skin. The representatives of this category are from groups: 1. Four-striped, 2. Mono-colored, 4. Bi-colored, 5. Blotted, 6. Marbled, 7. Spotted, and 9. Multi-stripped.

In summary, there are eight basic categories, which are firmly defined and individual representatives of each form are easily classifiable.

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2. System of evaluation

Size of the body

Despite the fact that in fish of the genus Pterophyllum is officially declared that the species altum grows in body size up to 25 cm and the species leopoldi and scalare up to 15 cm (the stated measurement is the length of the body from the mouth to the caudal peduncle, without fins), it is necessary to consider body size that corresponds to the generally observed size and not to extreme cases. Adult individuals commonly held in optimal conditions grow in P. altum on average up to 13-15 cm and are also presented this way, similarly to P. leopoldi and scalare – males are between 7-10 cm, females are little bit smaller. Above mentioned measurements correspond to the usual size of competing exhibits, length of un-paired fins and pelvic fins depends on shape form. The judge has to evaluate the length of the body in cm as described above.
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Tab: Size of body
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Shape and harmony of the body

The body of the shown exhibit should be maximally symmetrical in the conformation of the body specific to the particular species. In males, an evident lipid hump is visible starting from the time of maturation. The lipid hump can also occur in older fully grown females of P. scalare and this phenomenon is not in any instance evaluated as a defect. In this category of evaluation, it is necessary that the judges take into account the whole conformation of the body including fins accordingly to the ideal of each species (see drawings). It is also necessary to note the location (beginning and end) of dominant un-paired fins and the axis of the caudal peduncle.
Nose has to have a clean line, without any scratches or spots with fungus. The curvature of the forehead, in particular in P. altum, has to agree with given criteria of natural appearance of these fish (see drawings). It also applies to some wild populations of P. scalare or described species of the genus Pterophyllum. When looking from the side, the shape of the body should follow, with the exception of “V” curvature of the nose, curves that protrude outwards only. The curves should not disturb the sideways outline of the body.
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P.scalare - ideal type of body
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Dorsal fin

The dorsal fin doesn’t have to be torn and the structure of soft membranous parts of the fins between fin rays doesn’t have to show perforation. Fish can have a visible space between first seven rays (specifically the space between the initial hard rays of the fin) number. The space between the seventh and tenth rays should reach at most to the middle of the length of individual rays. The space between the tenth and fourteenth rays should have a space with depth at most 3-5 mm (in fully developed individuals). The whole conformation of the dorsal fin has to look harmonically and has to have rounded line (in short-finned forms) from the imaginary tip towards the rear of the fin. On the other hand, in long-finned forms (veil forms), fish are allowed to have extended soft rays with long freely fluttering threadlike protuberances. Certain regularity in the length of individual rays (veils) should be present also in these forms. A distinct lace in the rear parts of the dorsal fin is a qualitative and esthetical trait that occurs in all forms.
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Dorsal fin
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Tail fin

Tail fin: The caudal peduncle has to give a straight impression. The axis of the body has to go exactly through the middle of the whole structure of hard rays of the tail fin. The transition from the body to the caudal peduncle has to be continuous and the last rays of the dorsal and anal fins should be symmetrically spaced from the caudal peduncle. The end of the caudal peduncle – the beginning of rays of the tail fin should be straight and should be perpendicular to the lateral line that ends in this part (resembles horizontal capital letter T). Tail fin fully spread open has to resemble (rays bifurcate approximately in one third of their length) an exact semicircle or fanlike semicircle with fine prominent rounded middle part of the fan. Third peripheral rays – respectively their outer parts are extended into threadlike protuberances that can be longer than the tail fin by itself. In short finned forms, the rear end of the tail fin has to be uniform slightly bent as an arch. In longed finned forms (veil forms), the extended rays with membranous spaces, usually ended with threadlike protuberances, have to look harmonically. It is also valid here, that a contrasting lace is a qualitative and esthetical trait.
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Tail fin
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Anal fin

The anterior part of anal fins forms are so called “muscle triangle”. First five hard rays of the anal fins form individual “leaves” of hard rays. Spaces reaching to the base of the fin can be present between the first five rays when fully spread open. The fifth ray is connected by a fin membrane with the front part of the fin at least by half of the length of the ray. External – the anterior part of the tenth hard ray changes at the pointed point of the fin into an independent extended fin ray. The anterior part can be as long as is the length of the fin from the abdominal part to the tip of the fin. The posterior part of the fin has a rounded shape and similarly to the dorsal fin, it forms a sigmoidally rounded area with clean lines. The best colored individuals of all breeder forms of angelfish carry a visible lace on the anal fin.
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Anal fin
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Pelvic fin

If we draw an imaginary vertical line (from the side view) beginning at the first ray of dorsal fin, going through gills, through the root of pectoral fins to the point, where this line intersects the outline of the abdomen, we would exactly get to the part, where the roots of the pelvic fins start. The first ray of the pelvic fin is only slightly curved backwards, it is more massive – it resembles a thorn and it is by its root connected to the muscular motoric system. This ray is short and forms the main support of the whole pelvic fin. The second ray is the main and longest ray and by force of it the whole fin is extended into a long noticeable lengthened fin ray that makes two thirds of the whole length. Beginning from the third ray, other rays shorten continuously and the posterior end of the fin has again a rounded shape. Pelvic fins should be up to the end of the third ray bent into a slight arch receding backwards. The extended threadlike part can slightly curl in the clean line but must not be broken. In shown exhibits, both pelvic fins should have the same length.
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Pelvic fins
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Surface of the body

The surface of the body of most of the exhibited fish in at the first sight smooth – one exception is horizontal folding , causing in some forms with glossy scales diamond (pearlscale) gloss. The surface of the body with maximally transparent scales should be solid, as if mat, without any wounds or scars. Both lateral lines are clearly visible on the side of the body. The upper one, resembling horizontal C, laying with its belly upwards, ends in the dark part of the third vertical bar, where underneath begins and continues to the caudal peduncle the lower lateral line. Some mat color forms with transparent scales have in abdominal parts areas with scales containing nacre – so called mirrors. It is a natural thing and it doesn’t have either a positive or negative influence on the evaluation.

Coloration of the body/ Pattern of the body

This part of evaluation contains two different kinds of evaluation that mingle in some points. Coloration of the body plays an important role in groups of mono-colored fish namely category II/E and III/G. For representatives of this group the richness and spreading of the coloration is important, but they don’t have to have too sharply defined transitions in the case of more colors, colored areas have to be as little as possible spotted but on the contrary it should be as much as possible compact. Transitions between individual colors hve to be therefore continuous, presence of differently colored mirrors ( that are usually silver or dark bronze red to brown) are tolerable in lighter abdominal parts. An exception is the form “gold –lutino” where a high number of sharp red dots and lines are an asset.

In fish not stated in the previous paragraph an asset as much as possible the contrast pattern of dark patterns that ranging from dark brown to explicitly black color.

All striped individuals, i.e. four-striped, multiple-striped and also bi-color, have to have stripes that are harmonic as much as possible, either uniformly thick or narrowing or widening in some parts. Bars do not have to be interrupted or split. The first vertical bar of the four-striped form or anterior bars of the multiple-striped form (at most three) can have a slight arch. The first stripe going through the eye has to have the largest arch. In bi-color forms, the dark part of their body should be clearly defined by a vertical line. The vertical line of the best individuals goes from lower to bottom parts of dorsal and anal fins. The tail fin should be at least very dark. If the vertical line between the light and dark part is behind or after the imaginary one third of the body, it is evaluated as esthetical imperfection. Imperfection is also presence of first vertical bar in the bi-colored form.
Some wild forms can have a variation in striation, which is necessary to take into account. For instance, it concerns fish taxonomically described as P. scalare – historically described as P. eimeke or P. sp. “Rio Nanay”, which have thin vertical bars and in some individuals the second and third dominant bar doesn’t reach the abdominal area. In many natural forms, the first three vertical bars often visibly narrow downwards to the abdominal part and often change color from very dark to light.
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Pict - Notation of some patterns of the body
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In breeder forms of P. scalare, groups 5. Blotted and 6. Marbled should have spots or marbling noticeably contrasting with the body surface. Blotted fish – leopards do not have to have noticeable striation but clear patches. The patches should have a rounded character; they can touch, but are not allowed to fuse into larger areas. The patches can be at their edges slightly “defocused”. Marbled angelfish can have marbling of both color characters. Light forms (with 50% of light surface of the body and more) can have variable amounts of fine marbling or just a few spots such as in some Koi angelfish. Dark forms have on the contrary white marbling and it is up to 5-10% of white on a black surface.
Group 7. Spotted is a group of breeder forms P. scalare, whose sides are decorated by spots or maps(Mapped and California form), where the amount of dark mapped spots or surface from the tail often up to three quarter of the sides of the body. Mapping doesn’t have to be dark but rather silverfish dark grey or dark brown. Sides of some fish from this group are sometimes peppered with tiny dark red to brown dots (b. California and c. Jaguar), similarly as it is in some wild populations.

Fish of all previously mentioned forms and species can have a aso called additional coloration, which is often a significant esthetical phenomenon. It is a multi-colored forehead (from brightly yellow through orange and red up to golden brown with green and blue or multi-colored gloss of nacre of scales of this part of the body), in some forms of both breeder forms of P. scalare and wild species . In numerous breeder and wild forms, such permanent coloration is a direct governing trait of a particular form.
Wild species and forms of the genus Pterophyllum often have similar spotting as was stated in the paragraph describing 7. Blotted. Some species and forms have on their side also larger pink up to brightly red spots and patches that are typical for these forms (for instance known forms of P. scalare – “Red Spotted I” , Red Spotted II” and P. sp. “Rio Nanay”, and others).


Eye/gills +gill cover

The eye of the fish of the genus Pterophyllum should be rounded, clean and bright without any opacity. Eyes should be symmetrically placed and harmonically embedded into the relief of the head. Eyes are not allowed to be sunken in on one side and protruding on the other side. In adult fish of the species P. scalare, the sice of the eye ranges from 5-8 mm. Eyes of P. scalare are brightly red usually on the majority of the surface, however, at least on half of the surface. Adult fish of the species P. leopoldi have eyes that are brightly yellow to ochre orange-brown. The same ratio as in P. scalare is valid for the coloration of the eye. Fish of the species P. altum have eyes that are colored as if reflective silver-gray to brown. The eye can have one or two big raspberry dark red spots but at most in two thirds of the eye.
Gills. Fish can have a typical gill cover with a content of nacre pigment or can be transparent to almost transparent (“Red Wedge”) and in that case red gills are visible. It is required that both gill covers have the same character. Gills covers are not allowed to be deformed or be missing, stick out, be damaged, not fully grown up, or going beyond the root of the pelvic fins.


Fitness

Fitness evaluation is a subjective appraisal of each judge. Each judge should be sufficiently instructed in ideal of specific forms and he/she should have at least the basic knowledge of representatives of the genus and its forms and also be able to judge qualitative traits and contours. During evaluation, behavior of the individual or group of individuals is taken into account – gracefulness of motion in accordance to its physique. Fish have to appear healthy and not clumsy.

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Re: Proposals and standards for organizing competitions for ....

Odeslatod mlynář v 02 Led 2010, 13:46

Standards of Angelfish breeding forms

1. Group: Four-striped

This group consist of angelfish that closely resembles the original type of wild Pterophyllum scalare The specific trait of this group is the presence of four vertical bars. In contrast to the wild type, these fish do not have red or brown spots on their bodies. Another difference is the pattern of vertical bars. Wild populations of angelfish have very dark black or very dark grey vertical bars. Majority of Four-striped angelfish does not have visible intermediate bars, which are obvious in wild angelfish.

a. form: Four-striped Standard

The basic color of the body of this form is either silver or silver-white. These fish have four dominant dark vertical bars that range from dark brown to black and brown and are much darker than the grey-blue-black bars of the wild form. Under stress or disease, the intermediate bars become less apparent or almost invisible. Both forehead and dorsal region of the fish can be silver-white but more common are fish that have yellowish or light brown forehead and dorsal region since juvenile age. This subgroup doesn’t have compared to the wild form of angelfish brown or reddish spots.

b. form: Four-striped Black Lace

The black lace form closely resembles the previous form, however, fish of this form have much darker color. The pattern on the unpaired fins is more distinct and resembles a lace. The four vertical bars are almost black.

c. form: Four-striped Dark

On the first sights, these fish appear to be black, with a matted velvety tint due to lack of iridophores (reflecting chromatophores). However, under a direct light, the four vertical bars become apparent.

d. form: Four-striped Albino

The fish looks like a negative of the four-striped black lace. Sides of the fish are silver, forehead and dorsal region are in most cases yellow-orange, eye has red color and the four vertical bars are brightly white and easily visible.

e. form: Four-striped Blue

It is a relatively new form that was included into the system in spring 2009. These fish were selectively bred for high amount of blue pigmentation (high content of cyanophores) in the dermis. The basic surface of the body and the soft membranous parts of unpaired fins are brightly light blue (individuals with dense blue color are also known). The dark vertical bars are either black or very dark grey with a blue tint. This form is not fully stabilized which is indicated in some individuals by interrupted striation or missing bar(s).

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2. Group: Mono-colored


a. form: Mono-colored White

These fish are xanthophoric individuals (fish with abundant xantophores and erythrophores but lack of melanophores) with purely white bodies without any trace of dark pigments and with black eyes. The skin of the fish appears to be velvety white which is due to absence of iridophores (reflecting chromatophores) in the dermis. The body of the fish can have sometimes yellowish spots and both forehead and dorsal region can be yellow. Unpaired fins are purely white.

b. form: Mono-colored Platinum

These fish resemble the previous form with the exception of higher amount of iridophores, that are abundant in the dermis. Their color is glossy solid silver. The ideal fish should have visible dark dots or spots.

c. form: Mono-colored Orange Head

Representative of this form looks similar as the Mono-colored White form, however, their forehead and dorsal region is visibly tinted from bright orange to cardinal red. Certain subpopulations have in the vertical region glossy spots (approximately 1 cm2 large) that resemble little mirrors. The value of the fish grows with the amount of red in the dorsal region.

d. form: Mono-colored White Albino

These fish closely resembles the Mono-colored White form, however, their eyes are red. Their bodies can carry visible yellow dots that are most apparent in the dorsal region. The vertical bars are not visible.

e. form: Mono-colored Black

This form consists of velvety, either matted or glossy black colored fish with various amount of guanophores in the dermis. The pure form is very well recognizable under stressful conditions when the surface of the fish is purely black and without any indications of vertical bars or dots. The most valued representatives of this form have visible lace on the soft rays of non-paired fins.

f. form: Mono-colored Smokey

On the first sight, these fish resembles the previous form. However, the intensity of the black melanin pigmentation doesn’t reach 100% and under stress the surface of their bodies doesn’t appear to be purely black, which is due to limited number of guanophores in the dermis. The fish therefore has rather matted dark grey color and lighter areas of the body or in the anterior region around gills and eyes are in majority of individuals from dark green-blue to emerald green. Non-paired fins are usually purely black. The extremes of the soft membranous rays of the non-paired fins can have a distinctive lace.
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3. Group: Ghosts

a. form: True Ghost (Translucent Ghost)

Bodies of these fish are esoterically translucent which is probably caused by loss of all pigments in chromatophores. Their skin is translucent in such an extent that internal organs and bones of the fish are visible. As a consequence of translucent gill cover, all fish in this form have very obvious red gills. Yellowish dots or dots with yellow tint can be seen on some parts of the body, especially on the forehead and the dorsal region but rarely also close to caudal peduncle.

b. form: Brown Ghost (or Grey Ghost)

The basic color of this form is matted grey-brown with dark trimming of edges and tips of non-paired fins. The forehead or dorsal region can be darker. A wedge-shaped dark spot is usually visible at the rear side of the body just before the caudal peduncle.

c. form: Orange Ghost

Translucency of the skin is by far not as perfect like in the True Ghost form. On the contrary, the skin has from yellowish to orange matted color. The base of the hard rays of non-paired fins has a yellow to orange-brown tint. The fish has fully translucent operculum. The yellow-orange color is caused by a dominance of xanthophores and absence of melanophores and erythrophores in the dermis.

d. form: Pink Ghost

This form carries in the dermis higher proportion of erythrophores. Guanophore mirrors are usually present on the sides and at the ventral region. The skin of the fish has a rich pinkish-silver tint. The forehead, the dorsal region and also the hard rays of the dorsal fin have usually between brown to brown-black or orange-brown color. Individual in this group have the highest amount of guanophores in the skin.

e. form: Red Ghost

Fish of the pure form has from cardinal red to raspberry red color, often with darker edges of non-paired fins. Fish fed with a poor quality feed with lack of vitamin can lose their red color and turn yellow. The next generation of fish raised on a poor diet remotely reminds gold fish or the previous form.

f. form: Blue Ghost

This form has a minimal amount of guanophores and a significant lack of erythrophores and possible almost no xanthopores. With optimal water conditions and feeding, these fish have brightly blue coloration of lighter parts of the body, dark blue foreahed, dorsal region and edges of non-paired fins. Similarly as the previous form, under sub-optimal conditions of raising, these fish lose their beautifully blue color.
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4. Group: Bi-color

a. form: Bi-color Black and White (Half-black Standard)

The typical color of the bi-color fish is silver-white. The fish are black from approximately half of the body until the end of the tail. The dividing line between the silver-white and black is the third dominant vertical bar which stretches from the tip of the dorsal fin until the tip of the anal fin. The purest lines have front two thirds of the body light and the rest of the body dark without any obvious dots or marks. In majority of populations, the first vertical bar is visible and stretches from the first ray of the dorsal fin across the eye until the lower part of the gill cover.

b. form: Bi-color Golden Head

These fish resembles the previous form, however, they have orange forehead and dorsal region which is due to much higher amount of erythrophores and xanthophores in their skin.
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5. Group: Blotted

a. form: Classical Leopard

The basic color of the fish is silver-white with blue iridescence in the skin that carries high amount of guanophores. The sides of the body are irregularly covered by dark blots (explaining the name of the form). The forehead and the dorsal region are usually darker and are brown in older and mature individuals.

b. form: Smokey Leopard

Fish of this form closely resembles the Classical Leopard, however, these fish has more contrast coloration and visible lace in soft rays of unpaired fins.

c. form: Dark Leopard

On the first sight, these fish, similarly to Mono-colored Black, appears to be black with velvety matted tint due to small amount of guanophores in the dermis. Dark leopard like pattern can be clearly seen in these fish under regular light.
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6. Group: Marbled

a. form: Light Marble

The basic representative of this group is the classical marble angelfish. A dark marbling is apparent on the silver-white background, which can in patches resemble small irregular stains. The marbling reaches tips of un-paired fins. Ratio of 40-50% of white and black is allowable for this form. The forehead and the dorsal region are either light colored or slightly brownish. The skin of the abdominal region of some populations can carry clusters of guanophores creating previously mentioned mirrors.

b. form: Dark Marble

These fish closely resembles the previous form. Fish belonging to this form have much higher amount of melanophores and also erythrophores and xanthopores, therefore they have much darker stains and marbling. The forehead and the dorsal region have often orange or bloody red spots and stains. The ratio between black and white can be from 90 to 95%.

c. form: Gold Marble

These fish are classical marble angelfish with a distinct intense yellow or yellow-orange forehead and dorsal region. In some individuals, the orange color reaches the bottom part of the dorsal fin.

d. form: Koi

These fish are an exact opposite of the Dark Marble form. A minimal amount of dark spots or clusters of spots is visible on the white to silver-white background. Rays of un-paired fins can be in some parts dark. The ratio of dark to the rest of the body should not be higher than 5-10%. The forehead and the dorsal region of pure forms is either white or slightly ocher brownish. Some populations can have lower proportion of guanophores in the dermis on the lower parts of the body and can look matted white.

e. form: Gold Headed Koi

The basic color of the body and fins is not different from regular Kois. Minimal amount of dark melanophore spots of cluster of spots is present on the white to silver-white background of the body. Rays of un-paired fins can be dark in some parts. The ratio of dark to the rest of the body should not be higher than 5-10%. Pure forms have forehead and dorsal region brightly yellow due to high amount of xanthophores.

f. form: Orange Koi(Honey Koi)

These fish carries out all the color characteristic typical for regular Kois, with the difference of noticeable orange-red forehead and dorsal region reaching until abdominal region and root of the tail fin. The orange color quite often outbalances the silver-white background and the orange parts have yellowish rim.

g. form: Dalmatian

Surface of the body and fins is rather white than silver-white (due to lower amount of guanophores in the dermis). Body (possible also fins) is covered with small black spots or stains of rounded regular shape size of approximately 2 to 3.5 mm. Fish closely resembles a Dalmatian (the dog breed).
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7. Group: Spotted

a. form: Mapped

The background color of these fish is silver-white. In the rear part of the body is a cluster of dark spots (more dark brown spots than black) that fuses together into a pattern resembling a map. The forehead and the dorsal region of these fish have from ochre to brown-orange color, which changes over to lighter shades in the lower parts of the body.

b. form: California

This form corresponds to the Mapped form in amount of light and dark areas (rather than black, these areas are dark grey) and presence of rims around dark parts of the body. However, un-paired fins and light parts of the body are not brightly silver-white but have silverish grey-green tint. Very small dark spots can be seen on light colored parts of the body, parts of soft rays of un-paired fins have lacy character. The forehead and the dorsal region are ochre brown. In the parts of the body when the color transition from ochre brown to the background color, blue-green shiny reflections are visible. In some populations, the background color has a notable blue tint. The California form is inserted between Mapped and Jaguars form due to their color and the pattern of spots. High amount of guanophores is apparent in the dermis, especially on the head and dorsal region.

c. form: Jaguar

This form is connected with the previous two groups by origin. Lighter colored parts of the body, that have the same colors as the California form, have higher amount of slightly olive green color with gold reflections (high amount of guanophores in the skin), on which is instead of mapped pattern tiny dark grey spots, in some population hardly visible. The whole surface of the sides of the body is dotted with dark spots similar to dots found in wild populations of angelfish. These spots are probably closely defined regions with very high concentration of erythrophores.
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8. Group: Multi-stripped

a. form: Standard Zebra

The first representative of this group is a classical seven striped zebra. The basic color of this form is light silver-white. The body is striped with seven dark rather grey than black vertical bars. First bar, going curvy from root of first rays of dorsal ray through the eye until the bottom part of the gill cover is the only curvy bar, the others are straight. These vertical bars are narrower than the dominant bars in the four-striped group. The forehead and dorsal region are in young fish grey-white, and can be ochre-brown tint in mature fish.

b. form: Smokey Zebra

These fish have darker color than the Standard Zebra. Individual patterns on un-paired fins are more apparent and a clear lace is visible in the membranous parts of soft rays. All vertical bars are almost black.

c. form: Blue Zebra

Fish has the light parts of the body lightly grey-silver with noticeable metallically pale blue shine. These colors are visible already in small fish. Small dark brown spots can be seen on sides in juveniles bigger than 1.5 cm, which is typical for wild populations and also Jaguar and California forms. In young but fully developed fish, these dots are very intense but they slowly fade as the fish ages.

d. form: Dark Zebra

On the first sight, these fish, similarly to Mono-colored Black, appears to be black with velvety matted tint due to small amount of guanophores in the dermis. Large number of dark vertical bars can be seen under regular light.

e. form: Tiger (Orange Zebra)

This fish is unique in its appearance. Light parts of the body including hard rays of dorsal, anal and tail fins are instead of silver-white rather light ochre-brown to orange. They can have 10 or more vertical bars that are narrower than in Standard Zebra form. In general, the surface of the body resembles tiger skin and in addition, areas of soft rays of un-paired fins are laced.
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9. Group: Gold

a. form: Standard Gold

The background color is classical silver-white. Abdominal region can have parts with lower amount of guanphores, therefore some populations can have abdominal regions even matted white. The forehead and dorsal region are from brightly yellow to light orange (due to high proportion of xanthophores) and this color transitions, in well color populations, into silverfish white right at the middle of the body. Very rarely, yellow-orange color reaches up to hard rays of un-paired fins and if it is that case it is mainly base of the rays. Pelvic fins are either white or pale blue.

b. form: Lutino Gold

This form has high higher proportion of erythrophores, first of all on the head, dorsal region, and anterior parts of dorsal and anal fins. Membranous parts of soft rays of both dorsal and anal fins can have distinct black lacing. The best colored individuals have only bottom parts of the abdomen white, yellow color reaches in larger extent also into the hard rays of un-paired fins. On the sides of the body is sharply defined bloody red spotting.

c. form: Orange Gold

The entire body of these fish is ochre-orange (including abdominal). The color also reaches un-paired fins and pelvic fins. Soft membranous parts of un-paired fins have slightly obvious lace. Their skin contains lower amount of melanophores and guanophores, on the other hand, xanthophores and erythrophores are present in higher concentrations. Abdomen can be yellow.

d. form: Bronze

The proportion of pigments in chromatophores is identical to the previous form. On the contrast, these fish have higher amounts of guanophores which leads to fish with bronze metallic shine.
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